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When growing tomatoes in the open field, certain requirements must be observed. In order to get a high-quality crop of tomatoes, it is recommended to use seeds of zoned varieties, to create the best conditions for abundant fruiting.
Let's consider further how to plant tomatoes correctly and what needs to be done to grow healthy and tasty fruits.
For clarity, we suggest that you get acquainted in the article with an informative video about planting tomatoes in open ground
Features of cultivation
For growing tomatoes from seeds in the open field, medium and low-growing varieties are most often chosen. With this method, the resulting tomato bushes in sunlight quickly catch up with plants grown by the seedling method. These tomatoes have stronger foliage and an activated immune system. They immediately adapt to UV exposure.
Benefits of planting tomatoes outdoors:
- active immune system;
- strong foliage;
- unlimited space for building up the root system;
- no stress from transferring tomatoes into the soil from the pot;
- absence of black leg disease in 100% of cases.
If we talk about the shortcomings, then first of all it is a low germination, which occurs as a result of lost seeds due to insufficient care, died from the cold and an abundance of moisture, low-quality seed material.
When and where to plant tomatoes?
In Russia, tomato seedlings are planted after May 12-14, since at this time there is a minimal threat of unexpected night frosts. It is not worth planting in early spring, since the air and earth are cold, and tomato seeds will sleep until favorable warm days.
It is necessary to plant in a place that is protected from strong gusts of wind. Plants in open areas often die from frost and sharp cold snaps. The most successful planting site is the beds where zucchini, pumpkin, cucumbers, legumes and late varieties of cabbage used to grow. Do not plant where there were peppers, tomatoes, potatoes and eggplants.
Important! It is recommended to choose well-lit, open and protected from the wind beds, this will help the tomatoes in large quantities.
How to prepare the soil for planting?
Experts recommend soil preparation in autumn... For this purpose, after harvesting, the following is introduced:
The earth must be dug up and left in this form until spring days.... This will allow her to get saturated with nutrients during the winter. Half a month before planting, the soil is loosened and watered with plenty of water. Some gardeners cover it with plastic wrap to help warm it up. When preparation for one reason or another has not been carried out, you can plant seeds in open ground in the holes.
Tomato seeds must be pickled and hardened. In the first case, they are soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes. Hardening is carried out as follows - the seeds are wrapped in a cloth folded in 3 layers and placed in a refrigerator for 1-2 days, where vegetables are stored. This approach allows you to accelerate the emergence and germination of plants.
You can also plant dry or germinated seeds.... In order for them to sprout, they are placed on a bandage or gauze folded in 3 layers. After that, it is left in a warm place at a temperature of + 26 ° C ... + 28 ° C. Care must be taken that the fabric is not dry. After the petioles appear, the seeds can be planted.
How to sow correctly?
There are several basic schemes for planting tomato seeds in the open field:
- Tape... It is suitable for large areas. For her, they dig a trench 30 cm deep. Small pits are made in it, the distance between which should be 30-40 cm. If tall tomatoes are planted, then they should be located 90 cm apart. For small bushes, 80 cm is enough. This method saves land and creates convenient conditions for irrigation with a drip system and a hose.
- Square nesting... This scheme is suitable for bushy tomato varieties. The minimum distance between specimens is 50 cm, and between the squares - 80 cm. This placement makes it possible to create comfortable conditions for tillage, watering and harvesting.
- Chess... Seeds are planted in a trench on both sides in a checkerboard pattern. This method allows you to compose the landing, saving space.
- Ribbon nesting... A tape is formed from a trench, and the planting of seeds is carried out immediately on its two sides. The distance between the trenches should be large - at least 1.5 m. The distance between the bushes is 20-30 cm. This scheme is economical and suitable for small bushes.
After the seeds are planted outdoors, it is recommended to make a small greenhouse. For this, arcs of hard wire are stuck into the ground, onto which a film is thrown, fixed around the perimeter with bricks. Sowing tomatoes should be aired at least once a day, preferably during the day, so that the temperature difference is not high.
Attention! After the first shoots have appeared or if there is a risk of recurrent frosts at night, lutrasil is put on top of the greenhouse. This should be done only at night. After setting the temperature + 20 ° С ... + 23 ° С, the greenhouse is removed.
Watering and fertilizing
The most optimal watering option is two times for seven days.... In some cases, just once is enough, but at the same time it must be abundant so that the plant will stock up on water for the next seven days. A number of factors affect the efficiency of irrigation. First of all, it is a type of root watering. This option is necessary in order to saturate the plant with the necessary moisture and at the same time keep the air humidity at the proper level.
Watering can also be carried out along the furrows, while the main thing is that the drops do not fall on the leaves. This is due to the fact that they turn into lenses and the sun's rays burn the plant.
The soil should be moistened moderately - do not dry out and do not overflow... Ideally, if the water is at room temperature or rainwater.
The first top dressing is root and is done 2-3 weeks after germination. It is liquid and is prepared from 5 grams of potassium sulfate and 50 grams of simple superphosphate in 1 bucket of water. Until that time, the seeds have enough substances that are in the soil. Then the fertilization schedule is drawn up so that for the entire growing season the plant will receive 3-4 additional fertilizing. If the soil is scarce, then their number can be increased.
Yeast can be used as a top dressing: 5 liters of warm water takes 1 kg of yeast. The mass is infused for a day, after which half of the liquid is diluted with the same part of water.
As a second top dressing, spraying or foliar top dressing with urea is used. For its preparation, 5 g of fertilizer are diluted in a bucket of water. Also, a little potassium permanganate is added to the solution, so that the liquid is slightly pinkish.
The next top dressing is complex. You can use one of the following options:
- any ready-made complex fertilizer with nitrogen;
- yeast feeding;
- 1 tbsp nitrofocks for 1 bucket of water;
- 0.5 l of chicken or 1 l of cow dung with 2 tbsp of ash and 20 g of superphosphate.
Tomatoes are one of the most heat-loving crops, so at a temperature:
- + 14 ° С ... + 16 ° С - germination begins and shoots form;
- + 25 ° С ... + 30 ° С - seedlings actively germinate;
- + 10 ° C - growth stops;
- below + 12 ° С and above + 30 ° С - flowering stops, the ovaries fall off;
- up to + 5 ° С and more + 43 ° С - the plant is quickly damaged and dies;
- below + 0.5 ° С - tomatoes die instantly.
In the open field, healthy tomatoes grow, which have dense foliage and a powerful, well-developed root system. But to get a rich harvest, you need to make an effort - to properly prepare the soil, create all the necessary conditions for the development of the plant.
We offer you to see how tomato seeds are planted in open ground: