Sugar beet is an industrial crop. It is the main raw material for sugar production. Its yield depends on climatic indicators and growing conditions.
In world agriculture, sugar beet occupies a significant area. Its crops in 2003 amounted to 5.86 million hectares. The largest areas occupied by sugar beet are located in Ukraine, Russia, China, Poland, France, Great Britain, Germany, Italy; it is cultivated in Belgium, Belarus, Japan, Hungary, Turkey, Georgia.
In European countries, beet sugar is produced up to 80% of the total harvest in the world. Sugar beets require plenty of sun, warmth and moderate humidity. Which countries are the leaders in beet production? Is culture grown in Russia? Facts and hard data.
Where does it grow, what kind of climate and soil does it "like"?
The culture grows well in a temperate sunny climate... The root crop does not tolerate heavy rains and drought. The abundance of precipitation negatively affects the development of the tuber, disrupts the synthesis of sugar.
The optimum temperature for germination of beets is 20-25 degrees, for the development of tubers - 30, for the accumulation and synthesis of sugar - 25-30 degrees.
Soils for growing crops are divided into 3 groups.
- Suitable... This is black soil, sod-podzolic, sod or sandy loam. Sands and peat bogs are also suitable.
- Unsuitable... Loamy and heavy loamy soils, automorphic.
- Completely unusable... Loosely suspended, gley and gleyic (drained and undrained), waterlogged.
A suitable acidity index ranges from 6.0-6.5. Cultivation within the range of 5.5-7.0 is also allowed.
Producing and exporting countries
Below is a ranking of 5 leading countries in the production of sugar beet.
- 5th place Turkey... It is a hot country with a suitable climate. They receive 16.8 million tons per year. This country has bypassed Ukraine in the ranking (production is up to 16 million tons).
- On the 4th position of the USA... The annual yield is 29 million tons. In addition to endless corn plantations and wheat fields, the country is actively growing sugar beets. Both public corporations and amateur farmers are doing this.
- Germany opens the top three (30 million tonnes)... The country has long been a sugar beet producer and exporter. Sugar and refined sugar are also exported.
- 2nd place - France... Annual production - 38 million tons. Until recently, it was considered the leader in the collection of beets. Endless fields with fertile soil and warm climate make it possible to regularly harvest rich crops. The main production facilities are concentrated in the Champagne province. It is located in the very south, in addition to beets, thermophilic grapes are also grown here for the production of famous wines.
- Ranking leader - Russia... As of 2017, the country produced over 50 million tons of sugar beet. The bulk of the product is exported; sugar is made from a third of the harvest.
Read more about the technology for the production of sugar from sugar beets, including at home, in this article.
In which region of Russia is the most grown?
Until recently, cereals had the advantage of growing.
Since 2016, the cultivation of sugar beets has reached a new level, which has made it possible to take a leading position in the world rankings. Previously, the crop was grown in smaller volumes, and most of the harvest went to livestock feed.
In Russia, a crop is grown in 3 main regions, where it grows in favorable conditions for it:
- South, central black earth areas... This is the Krasnodar Territory, the Volga Region, the Black Earth Region. Here they get 51% of the total crop in the country.
- North Caucasus (Stavropol, Vladikavkaz, Makhachkala). 30% of crop production.
- Volga... Plots for growing sugar beets are located mainly in the regions of the cities of Samara, Saratov (we talked in detail about the modern technology of growing sugar beets here). 19% of the total. There are 44 enterprises in the region, which process up to 40 thousand tons of root crops per day.
So, sugar beet is an industrial crop from which sugar is produced (you can find out about how sugar beets are used and what is obtained in the process of its processing here). Beet tubers contain 17-20% sugar. The world leaders in the cultivation of root crops are Russia, France and Germany. In Russia, sugar beet grows predominantly in the southern region.